Increased end diastolic volume of the left ventricle typically occurs in

In cardiovascular physiology, end-diastolic volume is the volume of blood in the right and/or left ventricle at end load or filling in or the amount of blood in the ventricles just before systole. Because greater EDVs cause greater distention of the ventricle, EDV is often used synonymously with preload, which refers to the length of the sarcomeres in cardiac muscle prior to contraction. An increase in EDV increases the preload on the heart and, through the Frank-Starling. Impaired left ventricular function leads to increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and reduced stroke volume. Increased LVEDP causes increased pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure, which results in the increased filtration of protein-poor fluid into the pulmonary interstitium ( Equation 1-12 ) The increased left ventricular end diastolic blood volume increases the left from RNSG 1443 at South Plains Colleg Ventricular volume overload, which manifests as increased left atrial pressure, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure, and stroke volume, is a common feature in many children with unoperated CHD. Long-standing volume overload results in atrial enlargement, ventricular dilation, and cardiomegaly End-diastolic volume is the measure of blood in the left or right ventricle before the heart contracts. End-diastolic volume refers to the quantity of blood in the left or right ventricle at the..

End-diastolic volume - Wikipedi

  1. EDV (End Diastolic Volume) denotes the volume in the left ventricle, just before contraction commences. Left ventricular pressure increases when the contracting starts, and when left ventricular pressure exceeds left atrial pressure, the mitral valve closes
  2. end diastolic Adenosine and prostaglandins act on vascular smooth muscle to cause ________ when the myocardium has increased levels of carbon dioxide vasodilatio
  3. g the aortic resistance, which is typically 110 mmHg or more. It is straightforward to understand why systolic function is fundamental to global cardiac function
Left Ventricular Trabeculations in Athletes - American

Heart Left Ventricle Enddiastolic Pressure - an overview

  1. Premature ventricular contraction causes early emptying of the left ventricle (LV) into the aorta. Since the next ventricular contraction occurs at its regular time, the filling time for the LV increases, causing an increased LV end-diastolic volume
  2. Many aspects of left ventricular function are explained by considering ventricular pressure-volume characteristics. Contractility is best measured by the slope, Emax, of the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship. Ventricular systole is usefully characterized by a time-varying elastance (ΔP/ΔV). An extended area, the pressure-volume area, subtended by the ventricular pressure.
  3. ed the concept of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in a cardiac surgery setting. Materials and method
  4. Typically, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure, especially if higher than normal, is a reasonable measure of preload. LV dilation, hypertrophy, and changes in myocardial distensibility (compliance) modify preload. Afterload is the force resisting myocardial fiber contraction at the start of systole
  5. Normal diastolic function allows for the left ventricle to sufficiently fill and to generate the necessary stroke volume without exceeding certain pressure limits during filling. Diastolic dysfunction primarily results from increased resistance to ventricular filling, leading to an upward and leftward shift of LV pressure volume relation, often during exercise or tachycardia

Left ventricular end-diastolic volume for the entire group increased significantly (p less than 0.01) from 153 +/- 30 ml at baseline to 172 +/- 45 ml (at 11 days) to 220 +/- 63 ml (at 10.5 months). Twenty of 36 patients showed greater than 20% increase in left ventricular end-diastolic volume (dilation) with time Those with interval cardiovascular events and a dilated LV (increased LV end-diastolic volume [EDV] indexed to body surface area) at baseline were excluded. Multivariable linear regression models tested the association of concentric hypertrophy (increased LV mass and LV mass/volume 0.67) with change in LVEDV The pathophysiology of diastolic dysfunction includes delayed relaxation, impaired LV filling and/or increased stiffness. These conditions result typically in an upward displacement of the diastolic pressure-volume relationship with increased end-diastolic, left atrial and pulmo-capillary wedge pressure leading to symptoms of pulmonary congestion (18,20,21) Simplistically, the observed phenomenon is the result of the continuously varying response of the left ventricle to subtle changes in end-diastolic volume, created through cardiopulmonary interaction

In other conditions in which left ventricular end-diastolic pressure is elevated, such as restrictive cardiomyopathy or ischaemic heart disease, the rate of equilibration between left atrium and left ventricle is increased, and the estimation of mitral valve area by T½ can also be falsely increased The left ventricle is filled with blood from the pulmonary veins. If pulmonary venous flow is increased, the ventricle will fill to a greater extent (end-diastolic volume is increased; red loop in figure). As the ventricle contracts, it will eject blood more rapidly because the Frank-Starling mechanism will be activated by the increased preload Owing to the lower blood volume and preload (end-diastolic volume) demonstrated by the spinal cord injured group, a reduction in left ventricular diastolic function was expected. However, both..

Left ventricular (LV) diastolic function can be evaluated by echocardiographic indices of LV relaxation/restoring forces, diastolic compliance, and filling pressure. By using a combination of indices, diastolic function can be graded and LV filling pressure estimated with high feasibility and good accuracy. Evaluation of diastolic function is of particular importance in patients with. Compensatory increases in end-diastolic volume will be limited by ventricular hypertrophy that occurs due to the chronic increase in afterload. This hypertrophy can lead to a large increase in end-diastolic pressure that is associated with reduced end-diastolic volumes because the increased stiffness of the ventricle prevents normal ventricular filling This study has defined a mechanism whereby a reduction in lung liquid volume results in enhanced pumping performance of the fetal heart. These findings suggest that a reduction in lung liquid volume which occurs during the birth transition contributes to increases in left ventricular dimensions and pumping performance known to occur with birth

The increased left ventricular end diastolic blood volume

BACKGROUND: Premature birth is associated with ventricular remodeling, early heart failure, and altered left ventricular (LV) response to physiological stress. Using computational cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, we aimed to quantify preterm ventricular remodeling in the neonatal period, and explore contributory clinical factors Increase in LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (LVEDV and LVESV). Increase in the LV mass (LVM). In the compensated stage of eccentric hypertrophy secondary to MR, the LV ejection fraction (LVEF) remains normal or increased, and the relative wall thickness (RWT) also remains normal

with the added volume. 13 As pressure continues to in-crease, volume can be diverted from the alveoli to the Fig. 3. This series of Frank-Starling curves demonstrates that at any given preload (end-diastolic volume), increases in contractility will increase stroke volume (volume of blood ejected from the ventricle with each beat). Fig. 2 LIBONATI, J. R. Myocardial diastolic function and exercise. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 31, No. 12, pp. 1741-1747, 1999. There are several important links between aerobic exercise performance and the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle. During acute exercise, diastolic function must be augmented in order for left ventricular filling to match increased left ventricular output, i.e.

increased end diastolic volume (filling) of the left ventricle . Heart failure can also occur in the right ventricle due to hypertension within the lung vasculature. Failure of the right heart to maintain normal CO leads to an accumulation of blood in the systemic veins, increased capillary filtration, and edema In this stage of the disease, which may last for 7 to 10 years, patients are typically asymptomatic. Eventually, prolonged volume overload leads to left ventricular dysfunction and increased left ventricular end-systolic diameter. However, even in this phase of the disease, left ventricular ejection fraction usually remains above 50% to 60% Determinants of Left Ventricular Function. 1- Preload: The preload is the volume that fills in the heart during diastole, and it is referred to as the end diastolic volume (EDV).; According to Frank Starling's law, the larger the blood volume filling the heart is, the larger the degree of cardiac stretching is and consequently more blood is pumped.; The Frank-Starling mechanism can be.

Increase in LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (LVEDV and LVESV). Increase in the LV mass (LVM). In the compensated stage of eccentric hypertrophy secondary to MR, the LV ejection fraction (LVEF) remains normal or increased, and the relative wall thickness (RWT) also remains normal Left ventricular end-diastolic sphericity index was measured (as previously described), as the ratio of LV end-diastolic diameter measured in short axis view at papillary muscle level (septal to lateral wall distance) divided by the LV end-diastolic long axis diameter measured in the apical 4 chamber view If a semilunar valve were partially obstructed, the end systolic volume in the affected ventricle would be decreased. Stroke volume increases if end diastolic volume decreases. A slow heart rate increases end diastolic volume, stroke volume, and force of contraction. Decreased venous return will result in increased end diastolic volume They correspond to precisely defined areas that can clearly be identified in the LV volume domain. Fig. 9.The left ventricular volume domain showing end-systolic volume index (ESVi) and end-diastolic volume index (EDVi), along with the identity line, and ejection fraction (EF) of 50%, where ESVi = 0.5 EDVi

End-diastolic volume: What is it, and how do doctors use it

Right ventricular loading/pressure influences left ventricular function because the two ventricles pump in series and because they are anatomically arranged in parallel, sharing the common ventricular septum. Flattening of the interventricular septum detected during echocardiographic examination is called D-shaped left ventricle. We present a case of an elderly male of African descent, who. Dilated and Restrictive Cardiomyopathies Online Medical Reference - covers diseases of the myocardium associated with cardiac dysfunction. Authored by Corinne Bott-Silverman of the Cleveland Clinic. Cardiomyopathies are diseases of the myocardium associated with cardiac dysfunction, often resulting in the clinical syndrome of heart failure

Ventricular Pressure-Volume Relationship: Preload

4.4.4 Color Doppler M-mode - flow propagation. The color-Doppler M-mode is another technique to study early diastolic inflow into the left ventricle and thus diastolic function. This method is basically a means of determining how rapidly blood travels from the base of the ventricle towards the apex occurs, was studied in 10 examine the left ventricular diastolic pressure-di-mension relationship and to define the relative con-tribution of myocardial blood flow, and the perfu-sion pressure at which flow occurs, upon this rela- volumes % ± 1.5 volumes %, blood pH at 7.40.

A normal LVEF is greater than 50%, which means the left ventricle is able to pump out more than half of the blood that's inside it. In some people with diastolic heart failure, the systolic function of the heart (that is, its ability to eject blood with a strong pumping action) is normal Typically presents as a holosystolic blowing murmur at the apex, radiating to axilla. Transthoracic echo is the diagnostic test of choice in identifying presence, severity, and mechanism of MR. Colour Doppler flow and continuous-wave Doppler studies can assess severity of regurgitation, left ventricular dimensions, size and function of the right ventricle, and pulmonary artery systolic pressure in left ventricular end-diastolic volume, as a measure of preload, has been detected both at rest (Alexander & Grover, 1983; Boussuges et al., 2000) and during supine exercise (Stembridge et al., 2015). Potential explanations for this include (i) reduced central blood volume; (ii) diminished right ventricular S

The pressure at 1 is known as the left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) (1 to 2 = isovolemic contraction) 2 = Opening of the aortic valve and beginning of ejection into the aorta (2 to 3 is the volume ejected from the LV into the aorta which is the stroke volume (SV)) 3 = End systole The left ventricle also undergoes eccentric hypertrophy and increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. If the defect is wide enough to allow a large shunt and pulmonary vascular resistance remains low, the end result may be left ventricular failure with pulmonary edema contraction (usually refers to left ventricle). (Ef = SV/EDV 55 - 75% Heart rate Number of heart beats per minute 60 - 80 BPM Preload (Volume) Degree of elasticity (stretch) in the myocardium with end-diastolic volume. Increased stretch (and volume) correlates with increased contraction. (Estimated with EDV—cannot be measured in vivo)

Stroke Volume. Stroke volume is defined as the difference between the volume of blood in the heart at the end of diastole (filling of the left ventricle) and the volume remaining in the heart at the end of systole- i.e. the volume of blood that is expelled with each heartbeat. Control of stroke volume is therefore directly related to the amount. left ventricular failure Left heart failure Cardiology CHF due to insufficient output or ↑ filling pressure, resulting in pulmonary vascular congestion Clinical DOE, SOB, exercise intolerance, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, rest dyspnea, chronic cough, nocturnal urination, pulmonary congestion-rales, pleural effusion, wheezing, S3 gallop Risk factors Smoking, obesity, alcohol. Increased right ventricular flow in atrial septal defect also abolishes the normal respiratory variation in aortic and pulmonic valve closure, producing a fixed split S2. Left-to-right shunts with normal right ventricular volume flow (eg, in membranous ventricular septal defects) do not cause fixed splitting With every heartbeat, the left ventricle (LV) has to overcome the blood pressure in the aorta to eject the stroke volume. The presence of a chronically elevated arterial blood pressure, termed 'hypertension', is associated with impaired LV function, adverse LV remodelling and a poor outcome

AVF rats presented increased left and right ventricular weights, compared to controls. The increased normalized ventricular volume (V0/ LVW, 0.141 T 0.035 mL/g vs. 0.267 T 0.071 mL/g, P < 0.001) in the AVF group indicated chamber dilation. Myocardial hydroxyproline concentration remained unchanged Computer models of mitral flow suggest that pathologic reduced LV diastolic active relaxation in conjunction with increased LV stiffness cause a pronounced oscillation of the diastolic LA-LV pressure gradient, even if LA filling volumes are not excessive. 4 This becomes evident by detection of LA to LV flow during diastasis, hence the L-wave

Chapter 14 Flashcards Quizle

  1. Patients typically have reduced compliance (increased diastolic stiffness), and the left ventricle cannot fill adequately at normal filling pressures. Reduced left ventricular filling volume leads to a reduced cardiac output. Early in the disease process, systolic function usually remains normal
  2. imal, but pericardial pressure is maximal, causing the RA to buckle. RA collapse, especially when it persists for more 30% of the cardiac cycle, is highly sensitive and specific for cardiac tamponade
  3. (1) End-diastolic state: closure of the atrioventricular valve and the beginning of systole (the LV is filled with blood) (1 → 2) Isovolumetric contraction: With the atrioventricular and semilunar valves closed, contraction increases the internal pressure of the left ventricle; ventricular volume is left unchanged

Other echocardiographic findings suggestive of HEPEF include an left ventricular end-diastolic index <76 mL/min 2, a LA volume indexed to body surface area <29 mL/m 2 without AF, and a left ventricular mass index <96 g/m 2 in women and <113 g/m 2 in men. A left ventricular end-diastolic volume index >76 mL/min is suggestive of a high-output state Comparison of left and right ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relations in congestive heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1985; 5: 1326-1334. Crossref Medline Google Scholar; 92 Greyson C, Xu Y, Lu L, Schwartz GG. Right ventricular pressure and dilation during pressure overload determines dysfunction after pressure overload The left ventricular outflow ejection murmur of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can be increased by a Valsalva maneuver (which reduces venous return and LV diastolic volume), measures to lower aortic pressure (eg, nitroglycerin), or a postextrasystolic contraction (which increases the outflow tract pressure gradient) left circumflex, LV left ventricle, MIP maximum intensity projection, MPR multiplanar reformation, data reconstruction typically occurs at 10%, 20%, 30%, and so on, of the R-R interval. End-diastolic volume (mL) 173 39 End-systolic volume (mL) 69 22 Stroke volume (mL) 104 21 Mass (g Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is one of the most commonly reported measures of left ventricular (LV) systolic function. It is the ratio of blood ejected during systole (stroke volume) to blood in the ventricle at the end of diastole (end-diastolic volume). If the LV end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) are known, LVEF can be determined using the following.

The role of heart rate in the left ventricular twist response to increased arterial blood has to overcome the blood pressure in the aorta to eject the stroke volume. The presence of a chronically elevated arterial blood pressure, termed 'hypertension', is associated with impaired the end-diastolic to the end-systolic state. Because of the greater end-diastolic volume of the right ventricle, RV ejection fraction (RVEF) is lower than the left. The lower limit of normal RVEF ranges from 40% to 45% compared with 50%-55% for LV ejection fraction. 7,10-12 Several mechanisms contribute to RV ejection, the most important being the bellows-like inward movement of the free wall The left ventricular wall thickens at the expense of the left ventricular cavity. Some myocardial fibrosis and calcification of the valves are common. In the absence of coexisting disease, diastolic blood pressure remains unchanged or decreases. Baroreceptor function is depressed. Similarly, whereas cardiac output typically declines with age. Stroke volume during activity and at rest has been shown to increase in athletes who participate in endurance events. Over time, the left ventricle, or the part of your heart muscle that pumps blood out of the heart, can grow in size

Comparison of idiopathic LBBB patients with isolated ventricular asynchrony (LBBB with isolated asynchrony), with superimposed contractile impairment (LBBB with superimposed hypocontractility) and controls: corrected left ventricular ejection fraction (corrected LVEF) (a), left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) (b), septal native T1 times in 1.5 T (c) and in 3 T (d) In particular, the increase in ventricular end-diastolic pressure and the reduction in the systolic one, well known for the left ventricular failure 32,42, has been recently reported also in the. Volume overload leads to simultaneous LV dysfunction, 5 primarily due to underfilling secondary to septal displacement and changes in LV geometry rather than decreased RV-forward SV. 1 Chronic volume overload may eventually lead to RV systolic dysfunction and increased morbi-mortality, particularly in the presence of superimposed pressure overload and/or marked RV enlargement, which argues for.

Left ventricular diastolic function - ECG & ECH

  1. The end-diastolic relationship between LV transmural pressure and normalized LV dimension (strain) was markedly displaced to the left, suggesting increased diastolic elastic stiffness. Despite these changes in LV performance, cardiac index was maintained by tachycardia. The abnormalities in LV function were resolved by 72 h. We conclude that.
  2. Concentric hypertrophy, which chronic volume overload is especially more harm- consists of the addition of sarcomers in parallel ful to the ventricle, because an increased end- and an increase in myocyte cross-sectional area, diastolic and end-systolic wall stress is already is the remodeling pattern in pressure overload
  3. Diastolic dysfunction is associated with decreased peak filling rate and increased time to peak filling rate. In a study of 15 healthy participants, volume-time curves were successfully generated.
  4. gham study was reported to be 4.9%, with regurgitation of moderate or greater severity occurring in 0.5%. AR may be caused by malfunction of the valve leaflets themselves, by.
  5. The left ventricle normally operates at an LV end-diastolic volume with less than optimal fiber lengths. The clinical implication of this is that stroke volume increases with increasing preload until the optimal fiber length of the myocardium is reached. Increasing the preload further causes a decrease in stroke volume.
  6. Although the LV volume is increased, end-diastolic pressure is normal due to an increase in ventricular compliance. Thus, the heart initially adapts well to chronic AR, functioning as a very efficient and compliant high output pump. Severe AR results in increased end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes

Objective We explored cardiac volumes and the effects on systolic function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (HCM LVH+) and genotype-positive patients without left ventricular hypertrophy (HCM LVH−). Methods We included 180 HCM LVH+, 100 HCM LVH− patients and 80 healthy individuals. End-Diastolic Volume Index (EDVI), End-Systolic Volume Index. Specifically, there was no E/A reversal that is characteristic of grade 2 diastolic dysfunction. However, grade 2 diastolic dysfunction was generated when atrial pressure was increased by increasing blood volume so that end-diastolic pressure (EDP) increased, in which case the LV filling occurs in a steeper portion of the EDPVR (Fig. 2, bottom) Diastolic heart failure, a major cause of morbidity and mortality, is defined as symptoms of heart failure in a patient with preserved left ventricular function. It is characterized by a stiff. The primary role of the right ventricle (RV) is to deliver all the blood it receives per beat into the pulmonary circulation without causing right atrial pressure to rise. To the extent that it also does not impede left ventricular (LV) filling, cardiac output responsiveness to increased metabolic demand is optimized. Since cardiac output is a function of metabolic demand of the body, during. Increased passive stiffness of the left ventricle dictates the association of very small changes in volume with large changes in left ventricular diastolic pressure. 4,5 Indeed, significant.

Frank-Starling law - Wikipedi

  1. Pulmonary vascularity is moderately increased in A and mildly increased in B. RVEDVi, right ventricular end diastolic volume index. As the bronchi are compressed by the accompanying dilated pulmonary arterial branches, generalized or multifocal obstructive emphysema or segmental or less commonly lobar collapse are often seen even without significant respiratory symptoms ( Fig. 9.5 )
  2. b. End diastolic ventricular volume = 130 ml c. Isovolumetric ventricular contraction lasts about 0.5 seconds d. 70% of ventricular filling occurs via atrial contraction e. The amount of blood ejected by each ventricle per stroke at rest = 50 ml 7. Regarding the jugular venous pulse a. A 'V' wave mirrors the rise in atrial pressure before th
  3. Increased LV end-diastolic pressure in turn increases myocardial wall stress, which can cause ischemia and ventricular arrhythmias (4,5). Furthermore, although VA-ECMO reduces right ventricular (RV) preload (via venous drainage), RV afterload may be increased due to pulmonary venous hypertension secondary to LV-volume overload (4)
  4. Normal left ventricular systolic function. There are four criteria should be evaluated: average E/e' > 14; septal e' velocity < 7 cm/s or lateral e' velocity <10 cm/s; tricuspid regurgitation (TR) velocity > 2.8 m/s; left atrium (LA) volume index >34 ml/m 2; If >50% of these criteria were positive then diastolic dysfunction is evident 1.

Left ventricular function: time-varying elastance and left

ventricular end-diastolic pressure, in the absence of mitral stenosis, is equal to the left atrial pressure. The left atrial pressure can be indirectly measured by wedging a catheter in the distal pulmonary artery. This catheter is introduced from a systemic vein such as the internal jugular, subclavian or femoral vein and is advanced across the tricuspid and pulmonary valves Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) has been linked to increased cardiovascular risk. The present study examined the relationships between respiratory parameters and left ventricular abnormalities in OSA. 150 newly diagnosed OSA patients without any known cardiovascular disease were included in the study (mean±sd age 49±11 yrs, body mass index 27.1±3.3 kg·m−2, respiratory disturbance index 41. Assessment of left ventricular (LV) function with cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is often limited to evaluation of systolic function, including analysis of regional wall motion, measurement of mass and volume, and estimation of ejection fraction. However, diastolic dysfunction is present in various heart diseases, particularly in heart. Aortic stenosis has an increasing prevalence in the context of aging population. In these patients non-invasive imaging allows not only the grading of valve stenosis severity, but also the assessment of left ventricular function. These two goals play a key role in clinical decision-making. Although left ventricular ejection fraction is currently the only left ventricular function parameter.

Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction of the cardiac

Cardiac – Toronto Notes

These patients present with sustained hypotension defined by blood pressure less than 80 mmHg (or 90 mmHg if on pressors, inotropic agents or intraaortic balloon pump support) for greater than 3060 minutes, a cardiac index under 1.8 liters/ minute, in the presence of a left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) or pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) greater than or equal to 18. Left Ventricular Pressure-Volume Relationship (Stouffer []).a Schematic of LV pressure-volume loop in a normal heart. In Phase I, preceding the opening of the mitral valve, ventricular filling occurs with only a small increase in pressure and a large increase in volume, guided along the EDPVR curve Increased capillary pressures in the lung parenchyma lead to pulmonary congestion and the hallmark sensation of dyspnea. Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction typically is regarded as a consequence of LV failure. In a similar fashion, decreased output from the right ventricle leads to increased pressures in the vena cava system

The right ventricle: anatomy, physiology and clinicalComparative Anatomy Tutorial - VentriclesAtrial myxoma presenting with orthostatic hypotension in

Diastole (/ d aɪ ˈ æ s t ə l i / dy-AST-ə-lee) is the part of the cardiac cycle during which the heart refills with blood after the emptying done during systole (contraction). Ventricular diastole is the period during which the two ventricles are relaxing from the contortions/wringing of contraction, then dilating and filling; atrial diastole is the period during which the two atria. Because of its effects on left ventricular end-systolic volume, end-diastolic volume and ejection fraction, exercise stress testing has been advocated for use in finding incipient decreases in. The left ventricular (LV) diastolic pressure-volume response after percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC) was investigated to determine whether rt was related to the baseline conditions of the left ventricle. Left ventriculography was performed, and the measurements of LV pressure were obtained in 32 patients before and after PTMC Stroke volume is determined by left ventricular preload, afterload, and contractility. For practical purposes, preload is the left ventricular end-diastolic volume. As shown by the ventricular function (Frank-Starling) curve ( Figure 3 ), stroke volume initially increases rapidly and then plateaus as preload is increased

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